Snapshot batching may be simulated. Several batches of different liquids transported in series in the pipeline can be modeled. For each batch a minimum pressure (based on the vapor pressure) may be specified, to prevent vaporization of volatile products.
A dynamic batching option is also available to model a real-time batching scenario, as described in detail below.
Drag Reduction can be simulated for specified sections of the pipeline. DRA injection in PPM or Drag Reduction % may be specified. A percent degradation of DRA may also be included for some pipe segments. Built-in algorithm for calculating PPM from % Drag Reduction and vice versa. You may specify different DRA injection rates for different products, in a batched operation.
Pressure drop calculations may be based on Moody, Colebrook, Hazen-Williams, MIT, Miller or T.R. Aude equations.
Pressure control valves and other pressure drop devices may be specified along the pipeline.
Individual pump curve data can be viewed, edited and plotted on the screen or the printer.
Automatically generates a pump curve to suit design conditions (flow rate and head), when pump curve data is not available.
The pump performance at different impeller diameters and speeds may be calculated, using the Affinity Laws.
Centrifugal pump performance may be corrected for viscosity, using the Hydraulic Institute method.
The maximum pipeline throughput for a given MAOP can be calculated for a specified pump station configuration.
Slack line conditions may be modeled for pipelines with drastic elevation changes, including pipe segments between two pump stations.
The hydraulic pressure gradient can be plotted superimposed on the pipeline elevation profile.
Pipe branches and pipe loops may be modeled. Maximum number of branches and loops is limited to 50. Each branch pipe may have up to 500 data points compared to a maximum of 1000 sets of data points for the main pipeline. The branch piping and loops may not have any pump stations. Flow injection and stripping are allowed on the branches.
The capital cost of pipelines and facilities may be calculated.
The annual operating cost of pipelines and facilities may be calculated.
The transportation tariff and annual cost of service, based on debt/equity ratio, interest rate, ROR and project life may be calculated.
The input data consists of pipeline profile (distance, elevation, pipe diameter and wall thickness, pipe roughness, MAOP), thermal conductivity data (for pipe, insulation and soil), soil temperature, burial depth of pipe (cover), liquid flow rates, specific gravity, specific heat and viscosity of each liquid at two distinct temperatures, heater station data (inlet temperature, heater outlet temperature, heater efficiency) and delivery pressure required at the end of the pipeline. All of the above properties are considered variable along the length of the pipeline. Thus the pipe roughness may be varied at specific points along the pipeline to simulate different internal conditions of pipe such as internally coated pipe versus un-coated pipe. Similarly, the pipeline may be buried for a portion of its length and the rest may be above ground. Pipe may be insulated with a certain thickness and type of insulation for a specified length, while the remaining pipe may be bare or un-insulated. The properties of the liquid, such as specific gravity, viscosity are specified at two known temperatures for determining the property versus temperature correlation. In addition, the locations of pumps and heater stations are input along with the minimum suction pressure at each pump station. If pump curves are not available, an average pump efficiency for each station is input. If pump curve data is available, efficiencies will be automatically calculated by the program.
Most data are entered in Microsoft Excel compatible spreadsheets that results in easy editing and cut and paste operations via the Windows clipboard. The spreadsheets are saved in a proprietary file format compared to the familiar .XLS file extension for Microsoft Excel. For the sample problem, pipeline profile data (distance, elevation, pipe diameter and wall thickness, pipe roughness, MAOP) is saved in a file designated as MyPipe001.TOT. All other data for the specific pipeline such as thermal conductivity data, pump and heater station data, liquid flow rate data etc. are saved in the same text file named MyPipe001.TOT. Auxiliary data such as pump curves, liquid data that may be used with other pipelines will be saved separately from the specific pipeline data. For example in the MyPipe001.TOT file they may be references to pump curves such as PUMP1.PMP, PUMP2.PMP etc. All liquid properties are stored in common Liquid Properties Database files, which may be edited and updated with new products.